BACKGROUND This week, a 43-year-old white male presents at the office with a chief complaint of pain. He is assisted in his ambulation with a set of crutches. At the beginning of the clinical interview, the client reports that his family doctor sent him for psychiatric assessment because the doctor felt that the pain was all in his head. He further reports that his physician believes he is just making stuff up to get narcotics to get high. SUBJECTIVE The client reports that his pain began about 7 years ago when he sustained a fall at work. He states that he landed on his right hip. Over the years, he has had numerous diagnostic tests done (x-rays, CT scans, and MRIs). He reports that about 4 years ago, it was discovered that the cartilage surrounding his right hip joint was 75% torn (from the 3 oclock to 12 oclock position). He reports that none of the surgeons he saw would operate because they felt him too young for a total hip replacement and believed that the tissue would repair with the passage of time. Since then, he reported development of a strange constellation of symptoms including cooling of the extremity (measured by electromyogram). He also reports that he experiences severe cramping of the extremity. He reports that one of the neurologists diagnosed him with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), also known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD). However, the neurologist referred him back to his family doctor for treatment of this condition. He reports that his family doctor said there is no such thing as RSD, it comes from depression and this was what prompted the referral to psychiatry. He reports that one specialist he saw a few years ago suggested that he use a wheelchair, to which the client states I said no, there is no need for a wheelchair, I can beat this! The client reports that he used to be a machinist where he made pretty good money. He was engaged to be married, but his fiancé got sick and tired of putting up with me and my pain, she thought I was just turning into a junkie. He reports that he does get down in the dumps from time to time when he sees how his life has turned out, but emphatically denies depression. He states you cant let yourself get depressed you can drive yourself crazy if you do. Im not really sure whats wrong with me, but I know I can beat it. During the client interview, the client states oh! Its happening, let me show you! this prompts him to stand with the assistance of the corner of your desk, he pulls off his shoe and shows you his right leg. His leg is turning purple from the knee down, and his foot is clearly in a visible cramp as the toes are curled inward and his foot looks like it is folding in on itself. It will last about a minute or two, then it will let up he reports. Sure enough, after about two minutes, the color begins to return and the cramping in the foot/toes appears to be releasing. The client states if there is anything you can do to help me with this pain, I would really appreciate it. He does report that his family doctor has been giving him hydrocodone, but he states that he uses is sparingly because he does not like the side effects of feeling sleepy and constipation. He also reports that the medication makes him loopy and doesnt really do anything for the pain. MENTAL STATUS EXAM The client is alert, oriented to person, place, time, and event. He is dressed appropriately for the weather and time of year. He makes good eye contact. Speech is clear, coherent, goal directed, and spontaneous. His self-reported mood is euthymic. Affect consistent to self-reported mood and content of conversation. He denies visual/auditory hallucinations. No overt delusional or paranoid thought processes appreciated. Judgment, insight, and reality contact are all intact. He denies suicidal/homicidal ideation, and is future oriented. Write a 1- to 2-page summary paper that addresses the following: Briefly summarize the patient case study you were assigned, including each of the three decisions you took for the patient presented. Based on the decisions you recommended for the patient case study, explain whether you believe the decisions provided were supported by the evidence-based literature. Be specific and provide examples. Be sure to support your response with evidence and references from outside resources. What were you hoping to achieve with the decisions you recommended for the patient case study you were assigned? Support your response with evidence and references from outside resources. Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with each of the decisions and the results of the decision in the exercise. Describe whether they were different. Be specific and provide examples.