Nursing homework help

Nursing homework help


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Responses such as “I agree”, “thanks for that information – I didn’t know that”, “I experienced that also”, etc. will not receive participation credit. Please do not repeat what is already mentioned in the post. Responses should be a minimum of 150 words and minimum of 2 peer reviewed or scholarly sources with 5 years

Please do not to “cut and paste” answers from your references such as lists, bullet points, etc. This will not receive points for responses that are “cut and paste” even if you provide a citation.

Post 1:

Social determinants of health are conditions contributing to or hindering a person’s well-being. These conditions include where people were born, live, play, work and age. These elements are some of the biological, environmental, social and economic variables that affect a person’s ability to have and maintain good health. Several factors related to health outcomes include language and literacy, early childhood development, ability to obtain and maintain a job, social support, living conditions, and having access to health services and the quality of those services.  Nursing homework help


The communicable disease chain model is used to describe an infection spread within a population. There are six links to this chain that include: infectious agents, reservoirs, portal of exit, mode of transmission, portal of entry and susceptible hosts.  Infectious agents are bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites that can spread and lead to disease. A reservoir is where the infectious agent lives and multiplies. This includes humans, animals, arthropods, plants and soil. The portal of exit is when a pathogen exits from a reservoir (humans- blood or respiratory secretions, which would be the mode of transmission). The portal of entry is the way the infectious agent enters a new host (broken skin). The susceptible host is any carrier of an infection or someone at risk of infection.


Nurses are involved in all levels of prevention. Primary prevention includes promoting education to the public in health promotion measures to prevent the occurrence of disease. Secondary prevention for example is when a nurse conducts screenings for early detection and treatment of health conditions. Tertiary prevention is when nurses continue to use health education and undertake measures to avoid chronic disability and to delay further deterioration from health issues. Nurses can also help to break the link within the communicable disease chain by practicing proper hand hygiene, using proper PPE, being up to date on vaccine and staying home when sick.  Nursing homework help


National Foundation for Infectious Diseases. (2016). Help break the chain of


Green, S. (2018). Community & Public Health: The Future of Health Care. Retrieved from



Post 2:

Several factors influence health. These factors are generally categorized as determinants of health, and they include genetics, environmental and physical influences, behaviors, medical and social factors. Among the five categories, the common one is the social determinants of health. This category encompasses social and economic conditions that significantly influence individual and community health. The social determinants of health are shaped by the socioeconomic position of an individual, which includes power, the amount of money an individual has, and the resources possessed by an individual. The socioeconomic position of an individual can be shaped by several factors, including an individual’s occupation, education, and income level. The social determinants of health thus impact the individual’s health and wellbeing. It is usually important to address social determinants of health because it is the primary approach to realizing health equity.

Social determinants of health contribute to the development of diseases in a number of ways. For instance, as documented by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, poverty which is one of the social determinants of health, inhibits the ability of an individual to access healthy food and a safe neighborhood. Research indicates that children born to parents with limited educational attainment are more likely to live in an environment that does not promote healthy living, thus contributing to disease development (Marmot & Bell, 2019). Individuals living in poverty are more likely to live in areas with limited access to healthcare services. Their poor economic status makes it hard for them to seek medical care when they fall ill. As Palmer et al. (2019) argue, as income decreases, the likelihood of premature death increases. Factors like unemployment and job insecurity can contribute to mental health problems. Individuals who are jobless often find it hard to earn a living. Their life experience can subject them to depression. Lack of access to affordable healthcare can contribute to the development of disease because it makes individuals resolve to other non-western or traditional medicines that may not offer the desired protection against illnesses. Another social determinant of health that can contribute to the development of disease is food insecurity. Food insecurity is associated with poor nutrition. Poor nutrition is the root course of certain chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and Kwashiorkor, among others. Lack of housing and basic amenities can also contribute to the development of diseases such as Malaria, Cholera, Amoeba, and Typhoid, among others.

The communicable disease chain model is designed to represent the fundamental idea of how disease can spread from one host (person) to another. In particular, the fundamental idea represented in the chain of infection model is that it is possible for the individual to break the chain at any point to help prevent the spread of disease (Gerhardts et al., 2012). Breaking the chain means reducing the risk of the spread of disease. There are steps that nurses can take to break the link within the communicable disease chain. One of the components of the chain of infection is a communicable disease. A communicable disease is a disease caused by infectious agents. Therefore, breaking the link within the communicable disease chain would require initiating some practices that can help prevent the spread of the disease. For instance, constant practicing of hand-washing can help in breaking the link within the communicable disease chain. Hand-washing prevents the spread of infection, thus breaking the chain of infection model. Other steps include the use of disinfectants, pasteurization, and the use of antibiotics, among others.



Gerhardts, A., Hammer, T. R., Balluff, C., Mucha, H., &Hoefer, D. (2012). A model of the transmission of micro‐organisms in a public setting and its correlation to pathogen infection risks. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 112(3), 614-621.

Marmot, M., & Bell, R. (2019). Social determinants and non-communicable diseases: time for integrated action. BMJ, 364. DOI:

Palmer, R. C., Ismond, D., Rodriquez, E. J., & Kaufman, J. S. (2019). Social determinants of health: future directions for health disparities research. DOI:

Post 3:

There exists a range of intrinsic and extrinsic factors or determinants of health that can impact and influence an individual and her/his family health and wellbeing. Intesinics determinants of health comprises biology, genetic and behavioral factors. For example, an individual family member’s biology (age or sex) and genetics (rare genetic or familial heredity diseases) are some examples of intrinsic determinants of health that play a critical role in underlying disease progression (Islam, 2019). Moreover, an individual’s behaviors (such as routine physical exercise, balanced and nutritional diet, alcohol or cigarette or illicit drugs use) are some other examples of intrinsic determinants of health that not only impact the health of a particualar individual but these behavioural factors also influence the health of the other family members (Islam, 2019). It is relatively easy to directly associate the impact and influence of intrinsic factors to health, it is less easy to directly associate the impact and influence of extrinsic determinants or factors (such as family socioeconomic status and ease of access and affordability to quality health care services) to individual and family health. Among many extrinsic factors, five domains of social determinants of health (SDOH) significantly impact the health and wellbeing of an individual and her/his family members (social determinants of health, 2018). These five domains of SDOH include 1) economic stability, 2) education access & quality, 3) healthcare access & quality, 4) neighborhood & built quality, and 5) social & community context. Inadequate or a complete lack of some or all of these five domains of SDOH can contribute to the development of disease which would ultimately result in detrimental health effects to both the individual and family.

According to the traditional epidemiological communicable disease chain model, transmission of infectious diseases results from the interaction of infectious agents (bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites) with human and non-human hosts, and environment (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012). This sequence of events is called the chain of infection through which infectious agents can be spread and lead to disease in the population. There are six links to this chain that include infectious agents, reservoir, portal of exit, mode of transmission, portal of entry, and susceptible host. For example, transmission of infectious disease occurs when the infectious agent leaves its reservoir or host (such as humans, animals, arthropods, plants, and soil) through a portal of exit (such as blood, respiratory secretions, GI and urinary secretions). Subsequently, the infectious agent gets conveyed by some mode of transmission (such as direct contact, ingestion, or inhalation of infectious agents), and enters through an appropriate portal of entry (broken skin, respiratory tract, mucous membranes, catheters, and lines) to infect a susceptible (new) host. This sequence is sometimes called the chain of infection (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012). Through proper understanding of the sequence of events during the chain of infection, nurses and other healthcare professionals can help prevent spread of communicable diseases by practicing proper hand hygiene covering coughs and sneezes, wearing PPE, by timely vaccination, and staying home when feeling sick.



Islam M. M. (2019). Social Determinants of Health and Related Inequalities: Confusion and Implications. Frontiers in public health7, 11.

Social determinants of health (SDOH) (2018). Healthy People 2030, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Retrieved February 6, 2022, from

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Principles of Epidemiology. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved April 11, 2022, from



Post 4:

Health outcomes depend on both medical and non-medical factors. Non-medical factors that affect humans’ health and well-being are called social determinants of health (World Health Organization [WHO], n. d.). Social Determinants of Health can be described as conditions, in which people live, learn, work, and age that have an impact on health. According to the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Outcomes, social determinants of health can be grouped into five domains. These domains involve economic stability, access to education and its quality, access to medical services and their quality, neighborhood and built environment, and social and community conditions. SDH depend on the distribution of money, resources, and power at all levels (global, national, and local) (WHO, n. d.). As a result of inequalities in such distribution, there are significant differences in health outcomes both within and between countries and even between neighborhoods within the same cities because the SDH are contributing factors to health inequities and the development of a range of diseases. That is especially true for vulnerable populations. Poverty often is an issue with poor sanitation, lack of clean / safe drinking water and appropriate nutrition, limited access to healthcare, and lack of education; which ALL increase poor health outcomes. These conditions lead to the development of diseases directly which outcomes depends on SDH. A sad and vicious cycle.

The communicable disease chain model represents the minimum requirements that are needed for the presence and spread of a communicable disease in a population. The main idea is that it is possible to reduce the

occurrence and transmission of diseases by taking specific actions. We all have a very fresh perspective of this in action with our recent panndemic and the handling of this attempt to slow the curve in transmission with government mandates on both National and local scales . According to this model, the presence of an infectious agent (for example, bacteria or viruses), host (humans, animals, or plants), and the environment are three core elements of disease occurrence and spread. The absence of at least one of these elements breaks the communicable disease chain (National Foundation for Infectious Diseases [NFID], 2016). In this way, the communicable disease chain model shows that it is possible to address the presence and spread of such a disease, it is possible to stop the transmission!


Nurses can play a part in breaking the link within the communicable disease chain. Proper diagnosis and treatment, health education and health promotion are important steps that will have a big impact. This often involves the promotion of proper hand hygiene, vaccination, the importance of staying home when sick, and

wise usage of antibiotics (to prevent antibiotic resistance) on levels ranging from influencing and educating friends and family all the way to educating larger numbers of people within the community. I have traveled three separate times to Honduras with WGO on medical mission trips and was humbled and empowered by how much difference can be made in a community simply with education. We often did not take truckloads of supplies, like lice shampoo into the rural villages, but we educated the local women on bagging their bedding and clothing in trash bags and setting them in the sun to allow the bugs and eggs to die, on cleaning the combs between use on each other, on proper grooming and more. Simple education assisted in big changes! Educated health care professionals play an important role in breaking the link within the communicable disease chain.


National Foundation for Infectious Diseases. (2016, October 18). Help break the chain of



Office of Disease Prevention and Health Outcomes. (n. d.).

Social determinants of health.


Roberts, S. (2018, January 10). Key factors: Poverty and poor health. Health Poverty Action.


World Health Organization. (n. d.). Social determinants of health.









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